Academic Journal of Lviv Polytechnic. Series of Computer Systems and Networks №1, 2019
UDK 621.3 (681,519,536,62,50,003,004)
Melnyk A., Golembo V., Botchkaryov A. The scientific heritage of Norbert Wiener, the founder of cybernetics
The scientific heritage of the outstanding American scientist, the founder of cybernetics Norbert Wiener is considered in the article. The basic stages of the life path of Norbert Wiener are given. In 2019, 125 years will be celebrated since his birth and 55 years since his death. All his life, Norbert Wiener has devoted himself to scientific work at such prominent scientific centers as Harvard University, Cornell University, Columbia University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and other. The features of Norbert Wiener’s scientific style and his position about the organization of scientific search are considered. The contribution of Norbert Wiener to the origin of computer technology, which in his time was making its first steps, is analyzed. The requirements to the computing machine, formulated by N. Wiener, on which the creators of the first electronic computers were based are given. The main achievements of N. Wiener, which has been fruitfully engaged in scientific work in many fields (mathematics, theoretical cybernetics, control theory, computer engineering, etc.) are considered. One of his greatest achievements is the concept and basic principles of cybernetics, from which almost all modern branches of computer technology and information technology came out. The scientific ideas and hypotheses of Norbert Wiener in the field of cybernetics and prospects of development of these ideas in the new scientific and technical field – cyber-physical systems are describred.
Key words: Norbert Wiener, cybernetics, cyber-physical system.
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Berezko L., Tatianchuk V. Decentralized access management scheme to the cloud data storage
Consideration is given to enhancing storage security and maintaining data access control in cloud storage. Existing ways of controlling such access are analyzed. An enhancement of the encryption technique is proposed, based on the attributes of the ciphertext policy and its application in a decentralized data access management system in multi-user cloud storage systems. The main objective is to improve the security and privacy of the management of the cloud storage for which the existing management does not meet all the necessary requirements.
Key words: cloud data warehouses, access, encryption.
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Klushyn Y. Assessment of reliability of parallel computer systems at performance of the chosen complex of related works
When designing a parallel computing system for completing a given set of interactions, the robot is an important characteristic of social security. As well as the basic indicators of the higher number of computing systems, to protect yourself from technical problems, the main indicator of the higher value of the system is to assess the accuracy of the parallel calculation system of specific tasks. Tsya otsіnka seamlessly due to the effectiveness of vikoristannya obzumyudlyavnyh systems.
Key words: parallel computing systems, complex of interconnected works, direct stochastic modeling, Markov process, function of distribution of random variable, system reliability, failure.
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Kushnir D., Paramud Y. Methods for real-time object searching and recognizing in video images on ios mobile platform
The features of the most common methods and systems for searching and recognizing objects in video are explored. The research shows the feasibility of building search and recognition tools for the iOS platform in real time. The method of functional adaptation of the algorithm of search and recognition of objects to features of video is offered, which consists in processing of video image by smoothing and minimization filters, which reduces the time of search and recognition of objects. The block diagram and algorithm of system functioning were designed. Developed a program to solve the problem of finding and quickly recognizing objects in real time in Swift language on the iOS mobile platform. A convolutional neural network with YOLOv3 architecture was used along with framework for working with neural networks for mobile CoreML applications. A method of improving the performance of such a neural network is proposed, which is based on the quantization of the neural network weights and minimizes the model size and search time of its objects. The frequencies of image processing using the proposed means and models of neural networks of the type YOLOv3-tiny, YOLOv3-416 and our own model YOLOv3-KD are investigated. The possibility of functioning of the proposed funds in real time is provided.
Key words: оbject search time, object recognition time, video, mobile platform, convolutional neural network, real time.
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Nykolaichuk Ya., Vozna N., Davletova A. The method to improvement of structures of quick-actions one-digit and multiple-bit binary adders
This paper is suggested the methods of improving the structures of high-speed single-bit and multi-bit binary adders with extremely high speed and minimal hardware complexity are proposed. It is proposed to simplify the structure of the logical element “Exclusive OR" by implementing on the basis of the logical element “Exclusive AND". Improved structures of single-digit incomplete adders based on the logic element “Exclusive AND" are proposed. The comparative estimations of structural, functional and relative functional and structural complexity of their schematical implementations are given. The structures of full single-digit adders with advanced functionality are proposed. The structural and functional characteristics of circuit design solutions of such single-digit adders are given. The optimization of the structure of multi-bit combinational adders is proposed. Pyramidal multipath combinational combiners with single-phase and single-phase information links are investigated. The comparative characteristics of the estimates of the structural complexity of combinational adders depending on the bit rate of the source codes are presented.
Key words: binary adders, structural complexity, speed performance.
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Pasternak I. Principles of construction a user interface for cyberphysical system
This article discusses a principles and recommendations for developing user interfaces from cyberphysical system. The methods of interaction in cyberphysical system with web-services and database are presented for their effective use. The cyberphysical system user interface is implemented as a webservice. This article discusses the principles and recommendations for developing user interfaces for the cyberphysical system. The methods of interaction the cyberphysical system with web services are presented, for their effective use. The cyberphysical system user interface is implemented as a webservice. This paper examines the principles of building web- services, analyzes the existing architectures of web-services. The main problems related to the design of REST services and SOAP architectures are highlighted. Also, basic approaches and recommendations for developing graphical user interfaces for cyberphysical system were discussed and described. A description of the GeoJSON data format that is used to visualize the data obtained is given. The methods of interaction of cyberphysical system with webservices and database are presented. The proposed software is built in web-service based on the REST architecture. It is implemented as an information service that interacts with the cyberphysical system. The elements of this system are directly user-friendly, using GPS modules in users’ mobile devices. The collection of information is obtained from publicly open docks, with further storage of the data obtained in the database. The methods of interaction of the cyberphysical system with MS SQL Server are given. And, it also suggested data transmission that occurs through third-generation wireless systems. A test system was offered to allow the functions to be fully tested. The checks were created on Google’s Android operating systems, iOS from Microsoft’s Apple Windows. The user interface for cyberphysical system was verified in service user admin mode. The user interface and web-service as a whole, having passed the system of tests, did not fail, there were no abnormal behavior, which indicates the successful and correct implementation of declared functions.
Key words: web-service, client, server, cyberphysics system.
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Popovych B. Elements of high multiplicative order in extended finite fields on a base of modified GAO approach
The Gao approach to construction of high order elements in arbitrary finite fields is to choose a convenient polynomial, which defines an extension of an initial prime field. This choice depends on one polynomial-parameter. That is why the mentioned approach can be considered as using of a finite field description with one degree of freedom. We explore in the paper the possibility of improvement of lower bound on element orders in finite fields of general form with using of two degrees of freedom. We have performed computer calculations in Maple environment, that would show possible winnings in this case, and given the correspondent results. Elements of high multiplicative order are used in a series of cryptographic primitives (Diffie-Hellman protocol, El-Gamal public key cryptosystem, El-Gamal digital signature).
Key words: cryptographic information protection, finite field, order of element, degree of freedom.
References.  Agrawal M., Kayal N., Saxena N. PRIMES is in P // Annals of Mathematics, vol. 160, no. 2, 2004, p. 781–793.  Ahmadi O., Shparlinski I. E., Voloch J. F. Multiplicative order of Gauss periods // International Journal of Number Theory, vol. 6, no. 4, 2010, p. 877–882.  Conflitti A. On elements of high order in finite fields // in Cryptography and Computational Number Theory, vol. 20 of Progr. Comput. Sci. Appl. Logic, Birkhauser, Basel, 2001, p. 11–14.  Gao S. Elements of provable high orders in finite fields // Proceeding of American Math. Soc., vol. 127, no. 6, 1999, p. 1615–1623.  Lidl R., Niederreiter H. Finite Fields. – Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. 755 P.  Mullen G. L., Panario D. Handbook of finite fields. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2013. 1068 P.  Lambe T. A. Bounds on the Number of Feasible Solutions to a Knapsack Problem // SIAM Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 26, no. 2, 1974, p. 302–305.  Popovych R. Elements of high order in finite fields of the form Fq[x]/Φr(x) // Finite Fields and Their Applications, vol. 18, no. 4, 2012, p. 700–710.  Popovych R. Elements of high order in finite fields of the form Fq[x]/(xm-a) // Finite Fields and Their Applications, vol. 19, no. 1, 2013, p. 86–92.  Popovych R. On elements of high order in general finite fields // Algebra and Discrete Mathematics, vol. 18, no. 2, 2014, p. 295–300.  Popovych B. Kompyuterna perevirka prypushchennya Gao, povyazanogo z otrymannyam elementiv velykogo poryadku v skinchennuch polyakh // Lvivska politechnika, Kompyuterni systemy ta merezhi, No. 905, 2018, s. 108–110.  Young M. On the multiplicative independence of rational iterates, Preprint, 2018, available at https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.00944.
Puyda V., Shurhot S. On application of the histogram of oriented gradients method to vehicles identification
Development of theoretical background, methods and algorithms for identification of visual objects has begun when the first computers appeared. Application of various object recognition techniques in modern technical systems is boosted by fast development of powerful, small and relatively cheap digital devices for data processing that become more and more common these days. In this paper, we study the application of the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) method to the problem of identification of three kinds of vehicles: cars, planes and ships. The algorithm was implemented in MATLAB and tested using images of Antonov planes and different models of cars and ships. As a result, SVM classifiers for identification of some models of cars, planes and ships were created. To create these classifiers, the authors used sets of images containing the objects to be identified as well as “negative" sets of images that do not contain them. Main parameters of the obtained classifiers were compared. During the simulations, the specialized classifiers for identification of different models of cars, planes and ships were trained and optimal parameters for training and verification were selected to achieve best results. The study showed best results for car objects. To verify the algorithm in real time using real-world images, the authors developed an identification module based on an open-source Orange Pi microcomputer operating under the Android ZIDOO OS.
Key words: identification, directional gradient histogram algorithm (HOG), SVM classifier.
References.  Navneet Dalal, Bill Triggs. Histograms of Oriented Gradients for Human Detection. International Conference on Computer Vision & Pattern Recognition (CVPR ‘05), Jun 2005, San Diego, United States. pp. 886–893, 10.1109/CVPR.2005.177. inria-00548512.  Drozd V. P. Applying a HOG for detecting a pedestrian in an image [Text] / V. P. Drozd // Informatics, Mathematics, Automation: Materials and Program of the Scientific and Technical Conference, Sumy, April 21–26, 2014 / Ans. for the issue SI. Procenko. Sumy: SSU, 2014. P. 52.  Elektronnyi resurs: http://www.orangepi.org/downloadresources/
Sovyn Y., Khoma V., Otenko V. Comparison of aead-algorithms for embedded systems іnternet of things
The article compares the performance and memory requirements of AES-GCM and ChaCha20Poly1305 AED encryption solutions for typical 8/16/32-bit embedded low-end processors in the Internet of Things device with different approaches to providing tolerance to Timing Attacks and Simple Power Analysis Attacks. Particular attention is given to the low-level multiplication implementation in GF(2128) with constant execution time as a key GCM operation, since low-end processors do not have ready instructions for carry-less multiplication. For each AVR/MSP430/ARM Cortex-M3 processor core, a carry-less multiplication with a constant execution time, which is similar in efficiency to algorithms with a non-constant execution time, is proposed.
Key words: AEAD, AES-GCM, ChaCha20-Poly1305, Timing Analysis, Side Channel Attacks, IoT, polynomial multiplication, microcontrollers.
References.  Alex Biryukov and Leo Perrin. State of the Art in Lightweight Symmetric Cryptography. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2017/511, 2017.  Sergey Panasenko and Sergey Smagin. Lightweight Cryptography: Underlying Principles and Approaches. International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 4, August 2011, pp. 516–520.  Sovyn Ya., Nakonechny Yu., Opirskyy I., Stakhiv M. Analysis of hardware support of cryptography in Internet of Things-devices // Ukrainian Scientific Journal of Information Security, 2018, vol. 24, issue 1, p. 36–48.  Eldewahi A. E. W., Sharfi T. M. H., Mansor A. A., Mohamed N. A. F. and Alwahbani S. M. H. SSL/TLS attacks: Analysis and evaluation. 2015 International Conference on Computing, Control, Networking, Electronics and Embedded Systems Engineering (ICCNEEE), Khartoum, 2015, pp. 203–208.  Schaumont P. Security in the Internet of Things: A challenge of scale. Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2017, Lausanne, 2017, pp. 674–679.  Yang Y., Wu L., Yin G., Li L. and Zhao H. A Survey on Security and Privacy Issues in Internet-of-Things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 1250–1258, Oct., 2017.  Dworkin M. Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) for Confidentiality and Authentication, NIST Special Publication 800-38D, November, 2007.  McGrew D. An interface and algorithms for authenticated encryption. IETF RFC 5116. January, 2008.  Nir Y., Langley A. ChaCha20 and Poly1305 for IETF Protocols. RFC 8439. June 2018.  Langley A., Chang W., Mavrogiannopoulos N., Strombergson J., Josefsson S. ChaCha20-Poly1305 Cipher Suites for Transport Layer Security (TLS). RFC 7905. June 2016.  “CAESAR Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness". 2012.  Intel Architecture Instruction Set Extensions and Future Features Programming Reference. March, 2018.  Shay Gueron. Intel Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) New Instructions Set. Intel White Paper, 2012.  Shay Gueron, Michael E. Kounavis. Intel carry-less multiplication instruction and its usage for computing the GCM mode. Intel White Paper, April, 2014.  ARM Architecture Reference Manual. ARMv8, for ARMv8-A architecture profile. December, 2017.  Agner Fog. Instruction tables. Lists of instruction latencies, throughputs and micro-operation breakdowns for Intel, AMD and VIA CPUs. 2018.  Shay Gueron, Adam Langley, Yehuda Lindell. AES-GCM-SIV Nonce Misuse-Resistant Authenticated Encryption. CFRG Meeting EUROCRYPT 2016, May, 2016.  Daemen J. and Rijmen V. The design of Rijndael. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. Secaucus, NJ, USA, 2002.  Conrado P. L. Gouvea, Julio Lopez. High Speed Implementation of Authenticated Encryption for the MSP430X Microcontroller. Progress in Cryptology LATINCRYPT 2012. LNCS, Vol. 7533, pp. 288-304. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  “The Cifra Project. A collection of cryptographic primitives targeted at embedded use." https://github.com/ctz/cifra, Feb., 2017.  F. De Santis, A. Schauer and G. Sigl. ChaCha20-Poly1305 authenticated encryption for high-speed embedded IoT applications. Design, Automation & Test in Europe Conference & Exhibition (DATE), 2017, Lausanne, 2017, pp. 692–697.  Atmel Corporation. 8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 8/16K Bytes of ISP Flash and USB Controller. Technical Reference Manual, 2008.  Texas Instruments. User’s Guide. MSP430FR58xx/59xx/68xx, and MSP430FR69xx Family, 2015.  ARM, “ARM and Thumb-2 Instruction Set", 2016.  McGrew D. A. and Viega J. The Galois/Counter Mode of Operation (GCM). Submission to NIST, 2005.  Loup Vaillant. The design of Poly1305, 2017. http://loup-vaillant.fr/tutorials/poly1305-design. https://github.com/floodyberry/poly1305-donna/blob/master/poly1305-donna-32.h.
Tymoshchuk P. A neural circuit model of tracking control for continuous-time nonlinear dynamic systems
A neural circuit model of tracking control for unknown nonlinear dynamic systems is proposed. A first-order differential equation with variable structure and an output equation are used to describe the model. The model gives a possibility to reach a finite convergence time to working modes and limited tracking error. It does not need learning phase in offline mode. The model uses only outputs of the system and object to minimize tracking error of object trajectory. It has simple structure and can be used if internal dynamics and parameters of control system are unknown. Results of computer simulations of the model applications for optimal tracking control of rotation angle of two-link planar elbow manipulator confirming theoretical statements and illustrating its high performance are provided.
Key words: neural circuit model, nonlinear system, tracking control.
References.  Slotine, J.-J., Li, W. Applied nonlinear control. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA (1991).  Sastry, S. Nonlinear systems analysis, stability, and control. Springer, Berlin, Germany (1999).  Naidu, D. Optimal control systems. CRC Press, London, UK (2003).  Lewis, F. L., Vrabie, D. L., Syrmos, V. L.: Optimal control. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey (2012). doi: 10.1002/9781118122631.  Navabi, M., Mirzaei, H. Robust optimal adaptive trajectory tracking control of quadrotor helicopter. Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures 14, 1040-1063 (2017). doi: 10.1590/1679-78253595.  Perez-Cruz, J. H., Rubio, J. J., Ruiz-Velazquez, E., Solis-Perales, G. Tracking control based on recurrent neural networks for nonlinear systems with multiple inputs and unknown dead zone. Abstract and Applied Analysis 2, 1-18 (2012). doi: 10.1155/2012/471281.  Yen, H.-M., Li, T.-H. S., Chang, Y.-C. Design of a robust neural network-based tracking controller for a class of electrically driven nonholonomic mechanical systems. Information Sciences 222, 559–575 (2013). doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2012.07.053.  Haykin, S. Neural networks and learning machines. Pearson, Ontario, Canada (2008).  Slotine, J.-J. E., Li, W.: Adaptive manipulator control: A case study. IEEE Trans. on Automatic Control AC33(11), 995–1003 (1988). doi: 10.1109/9.14411.  Lewis, F. L., Yeşildirek, A., Liu, K. Multilayer neural net robot controller with guaranteed tracking performance. IEEE Trans. on Neural Networks 7 (2), 388–399 (1996). doi:10.1109/72.485674.
Khoma Y., Bench A. Comparative analysis of the specialized software and hardware for deep learning algorithms
The automated translation, speech recognition and synthesis, object detection as well as emotion recognition are well known complex tasks that modern smartphone can solve. It became possible with intensive usage of algorithms of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning. Most popular now are implementations of deep neural networks and deep learning algorithms. Such algorithms are widely used in all verticals and need hardware accelerators as well as deep cooperation between both software and hardware parts. The mentioned task became very actual during embedding of cloud-based algorithms into systems with limited computing capabilities, small physical size, and extremely low power consumption. The aim of this paper is to compare existing software and hardware solutions dedicated to the development of artificial neural networks and deep learning applications. The paper is focused on three topics related to deep learning software frameworks, specialized GPU-based hardware, and prospects of deep learning acceleration using FPGA. The most popular software frameworks, such as Caffe, Theano, Torch, MXNet, Tensorflow, Neon, CNTK have been compared and analyzed in the paper. Advantages of GPU solutions based on CUDA and cuDNN frameworks have been described. Prospects of FPGA as high-speed and power-efficient solutions for deep learning algorithm design, especially in terms of combination with OpenCL language have been discussed in the paper.
Key words: artificial intelligence, deep learning algorithms, artificial neural networks, software solutions.
References.  Christopher M. Bishop. Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning (Information Science and Statistics), Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.  Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio, Aaron Courville, Deep Learning, The MIT Press, 2016.  L.Deng and D. Yu. Deep Learning: Methods and Applications. Foundations and Trends in Signal Processing, 2013, vol. 7, nos. 3–4, pp. 197–387.  Mostapha Zbakh, Mohammed Essaaidi, Pierre Manneback, Chunming Rong, Cloud Computing and Big Data: Technologies, Applications and Security, Springer International Publishing, 2019.  Gerassimos Barlas, Multicore and GPU Programming: An Integrated Approach, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc., San Francisco, CA, 2014.  Seonwoo Min, Byunghan Lee, Sungroh Yoon; Deep learning in bioinformatics, Briefings in Bioinformatics, Volume 18, Issue 5, 1 September 2017, pp. 851–869.  NVIDIA GPU Computing. https://www.nvidia.com/object/doc_gpu_compute.html  CUDA Toolkit Documentation. https://docs.nvidia.com/cuda/  cuDNN Developer Guide. https://docs.nvidia.com/deeplearning/ sdk/cudnn-developer-guide/index.html  Amazon EC2 F1 Instances. https://aws.amazon.com/ec2/ instance-types/f1/  Cloud TPU documentation. https://cloud.google.com/tpu/docs/  Accelerating DNNs with Xilinx Alveo Accelerator Cards. https://www.xilinx.com/support/documentation/ white_papers/wp504-accel-dnns.pdf  An OpenCLTM Deep Learning Accelerator on Arria 10. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1701.03534.pdf.
Editorial board of Academic Journal "Computer Systems and Networks"
Editor-in-chief: Dr., Professor, Anatoliy Melnyk
Deputy editor: Dr., Professor, Roman Dunets
Executive secretary: PhD., Docent, Jaroslav Paramud
- Prof. Valerii Hlukhov, Ukraine
- Prof. Oleksandr Drozd, Ukraine
- Prof. Libor Dostalek, Czech Republic
- Prof. Zdenek Pliva, Czech Republic
- Prof. Potr Kulchytski, Poland
- Prof. Andriy Kovalenko, Ukraine
- Prof. Ihor Korol, Poland
- Prof. Serhii Lupenko, Ukraine
- Prof. Georgii Lutskyy, Ukraine
- Prof. Viktor Melnyk, Ukraine
- Prof. IhorMykytyn, Ukraine
- Prof. Zynoviy Mychuda, Ukraine
- Prof. Yaroslav Nykolaychuk, Ukraine
- Prof. Volodymyr Pavlysh, Ukraine
- Prof. Ljubomyr Parkhuc', Ukraine
- Prof. Oksana Pomorova, Poland
- Prof. Roman Popovych, Ukraine
- Prof. Taras Rak, Ukraine
- Prof. Volodymyr Samotyy, Ukraine
- Prof. Tanya Vladimirova, Great Britain
- Prof. Volodymyr Khoma, Poland
- Prof. Vasyl Yatskiv, Ukraine